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Mestizos In The United States
Because of this uncertainty, they sometimes do not feel comfortable sharing any personal information with people who are not family. Counselors need to reassure clients that their offices are safe spaces and what they share will remain confidential. Many families are brought up not to “gossip” or talk about personal or family problems with strangers.
The 3-day training provided a framework for delivering AMIGAS to Latina women at risk for HIV and aimed to enhance the health educators’ HIV-related knowledge and skills for delivery of AMIGAS with fidelity to the intervention curriculum. Trainees observed demonstrations of each AMIGAS activity, participated in group discussions and role-playing activities, and practiced teaching activities to demonstrate their knowledge of the curriculum and to experience delivering the intervention in a group setting. Before developing the AMIGAS adaptation, we conducted 3 focus groups with ethnically and culturally diverse Latina women to explore the factors that increased their HIV risks. We collected ethnographic data on their beliefs related to gender and social norms and sexual communication, as well as their knowledge and misconceptions concerning HIV. Information obtained from the focus groups, Latina HIV prevention workers, community representatives, and a review of the literature highlighted the importance of making the intervention culturally congruent.
Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association. While working, see what potential clients are seeking help with (child care, employment, etc.) and figure out where the clients can go to receive those services. Often information is available to help people, but they do not know where to look for it. Knowing where and in what direction to point a client can make all the difference.
According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council and CONCULTURA , approximately 70,000 or 1 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous. Nonetheless, very few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture. The low numbers of indigenous people may be partly explained by historically high rates of old-world diseases, absorption into the mestizo population, as well as mass murder during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising which saw up to 30,000 peasants killed in a short period of time. Many authors note that since La Matanza the indigenous in El Salvador have been very reluctant to describe themselves as such or to wear indigenous dress or be seen to be taking part in any cultural activities or customs that might be understood as indigenous.
Instead, addressing outright wage discrimination, occupational segregation, and work-life supports for Hispanic women of all ages is crucial to ensure that Hispanic women and all other women can be fairly remunerated and represented equal to men based on their skills, interests, and ambitions—their human capital. The disaggregation of the white male premium and Hispanic woman penalty detailed in Figure 7 sheds light on the mechanism through which the wage gap changes with rising education. Regardless of their level of education, white men benefit from approximately similar wage premiums—just above 20 percent.
The African descendants brought their own dances and drumming music style, creating some instruments like the « Cajon » and some culinary art characterized by their delicious taste. One of the most untouchable unmixed African population is still today El Carmen en Chincha Alta Ica, Peru. The city of Arequipa in the south of Peru displays the majority of Spanish descendants in the south.
In other words, if you compare the genomes of people from different parts of the world, there are no genetic variants that occur in all members of one racial group but not in another. Europeans and Asians, for instance, share almost the same set of genetic variations. As Jablonski described earlier, the racial groupings we have invented are actually genetically more similar to each other than they are different — meaning there’s no way to definitively separate people into races according to their biology. The effects of this history prevail today — even in current definitions of race, where there’s still an underlying assumption that traits like skin color or hair texture have biological, genetic underpinnings that are completely unique to different racial groups. The idea of « race » originated from anthropologists and philosophers in the 18th century, who used geographical location and phenotypic traits like skin color to place people into different racial groupings.
But there’s a more insidious side to this kind of stereotyping — besides being inaccurate, these types of depictions have been used to blame high rates of teen pregnancies in the community on the « spicy Latina. » Though theCenter for American Progressreports that the level of educational attainment for Latinas has risen in the past few years, graduation rates for Latinas, at 31.3% in 2008, are still significantly lower than graduation rates for white women, at 45.8%. Driven largely by the War on Drugs, women of color, particularly black and Latina women, comprise the fastest-growing sector of the prison population. In the last 20 years, thenumber of womenincarcerated increased at a rate almost double that of men, with Latina women being 69% more likely to be incarcerated than white women. Although feminists regularly cite the gender wage gap as a scourge holding back women in the workplace, in fact for Latinas, the gap is much worse.
We maintained the theoretical foundations of social cognitive theory,22 the theory of gender and power,23 and the core elements of the SiSTA intervention throughout the adaptation process from which AMIGAS emerged. We recruited 252 https://faqreviews.net/life-after-latina-girl/ aged 18 to 35 years in Miami, Florida, in 2008 to 2009 and randomized them to the 4-session AMIGAS intervention or a 1-session health intervention.
Latina workers are far more likely to be found in certain low-wage professions than white men are (and less common in high-wage professions). But, even in professions with more Latina workers, they still are paid less on average than their white male colleagues.Figure Bshows the average wages of Hispanic women and white non-Hispanic men in the 10 most common occupations for Latinas. In every one of them, white men, on average, are paid more than their Latina counterparts. The date November 20 is based on the finding that Hispanic women workers are paid53 centson the white non-Hispanic male dollar, using the 2017 March Current Population Survey for median annual earnings for full-time, year-round workers. We get similar results when we look at averagehourlywages for all workers (not just full-time workers) using the monthly Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group for 2018—which show Hispanic women workers being paid 56 cents on the white male dollar.
According to some estimates, Latinas earnjust 55 centsfor every dollar earned by non-Hispanic white men. Furthermore, the share of Latina women earning at or below minimum wage is actually increasing, tripling from 2007 to 2012, and contributing to an overall poverty rate of 27.9% —close to three timesthat of non-Latina white women. For the most part, researchers have concentrated on Caucasian girls and women from middle- to upper-class backgrounds, with few doctors even equipped with the language and questions to ask Latina sufferers. But even though researchers and physicians seem to overwhelmingly disregard Latinas in their work, eating disorders do not discriminate. A 2005studylooking at almost 2,000 Latinas ranging in age from 11 to 20 years old concluded that eating disorders are prevalent in all subgroups, illustrating that these illnesses cut across race, ethnicity, class and age.
During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population. In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term Hispanic or Latino when it comes to describing their identity.
The adaptation process remained faithful to the underlying theories and core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. The Latina health educators implemented the AMIGAS curriculum with remarkable fidelity. Of all the activities outlined in the curriculum, 98% were independently rated as having been correctly implemented. The participants also gave health educators superior ratings for the manner in which they delivered the curriculum. Two trained Latina health educators presented AMIGAS in Spanish during 4 interactive group sessions lasting 2.5 hours each.
Population Growth Rate
Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly European and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — polka, has influence from polka music brought by Central European settlers to Mexico which later influenced western music. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, Bachata, Cumbia and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds. Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world.
The number of working-poor Latina women is more than double that of white women, at 13.58 percent, compared with 6.69 percent. According to a 2010 study, the median household wealth of single Latina women is $120, compared with single white women’s median household wealth of $41,500. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 32.2 percent of Latina women work in the service sector, compared with only 20 percent of white women, and service workers are almost 20 percent less likely to have either paid sick leave or retirement benefits.
On a global scale, the country ranks 83rd in terms of female representation in national legislatures, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the Geneva-based international organization of parliaments. Against the background of Hillary Clinton’s defeat in the 2016 presidential race, it is hard to understand how one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world has never elected a woman to the White House. Other countries in the Western Hemisphere — Nicaragua, Panama, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Costa Rica — have had women as presidents.